戴柏阳先生认养“水杉一号” Mr. Dai Adopted One of The Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng

  

     2005年7月25日,来自四川省林业厅的戴柏阳先生爱心认养“水杉一号”。

    July 25, Mr. Dai Baiyang adopted one of the Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Hu et Cheng) at CCRCGP.

    水杉是世界上珍稀的孑遗植物。远在中生代白垩纪,地球上已出现水杉类植物,并广泛分布于北半球。冰期以后,这类植物几乎全部绝迹。在欧洲、北美和东亚,从晚白垩纪至上新世的地层中均发现过水杉化石。二十世纪四十年代中国的植物学家在湖北、四川交界的谋道溪(磨刀溪)发现了幸存的水杉巨树,树龄约400余年。后在湖北利川县水杉坝与小河发现了残存的水杉林,胸径在20厘米以上的有5000多株,还在沟谷与农田里找到了数量较多的树干和伐兜。随后,又相继在四川石柱县冷水与湖南龙山县珞塔、塔泥湖发现了200—300年以上的大树。树高35—41.5米,胸径1.6—2.4米;树皮灰褐色或深灰色,裂片条片状脱落;小枝对生或近对生,下垂。叶交互对生,在绿色脱落的侧生小枝上排成羽状2列,线形,柔软,几无柄,通常长1.3—2厘米,宽1.5—2毫米,上面中脉凹下,下面沿中脉两侧有4—8条气孔线。雌雄同株,雄球花单生叶腋或苞腋,卵圆形,交互对生排成总状或园椎花序状,雄蕊交互对生,约20枚,花药3,花丝短,药隔显著;雌球花单生侧枝顶端,由22—28枚交互对生的苞鳞和珠鳞所组成,各有5—9胚珠。球果下垂,当年成熟,近球形或圆状球形,微具四棱,长1.8—2.5厘米;种鳞极薄,透明;苞鳞木质,盾形,背面顶部有一横槽,熟时深褐色;种子倒卵形,扁平,周围有乍翅,先端有凹缺。水杉素有“活化石”之称。它对于古植物、古气候、古地理和地质学,以及裸子植物系统发育的研究均有重要的意义。此外,树形优美,树干高大通直,生长快,是亚热带地区平原绿化的优良树种,也是速生用材树种。

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Hu et Cheng),is a rare introduced species at Wolong Nature Reserve, and belongs to the Metasequoia family of the genus Taxodiaceae, and is distributed between elevations of 1720—1920m. It is a rare relic plant in the world. Far in the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic, plants similar to Metasequoia appeared on the earth, and were distributed widely in the Northern Hemisphere. Most of these kinds of plants became extinct after the ice age. In Europe, North America and East Asia, fossils of Metasequoia were found in the stratum from the late Cretaceous period to the Pliocene. In the 1940s, Chinese botanists found the huge tree of survived Metasequoia at Modaoqi in the boundary between Sichuan and Hubei. It was about 400 years in age. Then, Metasequoia forest was found in Shuishanba and Xiaohe of Lichuan county of Hubei province, and there were more than 5000 trees in which the DBH was over 20 cm, and many trunks and stumps were found in the valley and farmland. Later, 200—300 years old big trees were found one after the other in Lengshui of Shizhu county of Sichuan province and Geta and Tanihu of Longshan county of Hunan province.

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides  is a deciduous tree, 35—41.5m tall, with a DBH of up to 1.6—2.4m. Its bark is grayish brown or dark gray, fissured into slivers and desquamated. Branchlets are opposite or approximately alternate and pendulous. Leaves are opposite, pinnate and 2-ranked on the lateral branchlets, linear, supple, almost sessile, often 1.3—2cm long 1.5—2mm wide. The adaxial midrib is concave, 4—8 stomatic bands are on each side of abaxial midrib. Flowers are hermaphroditic. Male cones are solitary on the axil, ovate, opposite, racemose or paniculated. Stamen are mutually opposite, ca.20. There are three anthers with short filaments and the septum of the anther is distinct. Female cones are solitary on the tips of lateral branches, consist of 22—28 opposite bract scales and ovule scale with 5—9 ovules. Seed cones are pendulous, mature in the same year. They are sub-orbicular with 4 ridges and are 1.8—2.5cm long. Seed scales are thin and translucent. Bract scales are woody, scutellate, dark brown at maturation, with a transverse slot on the top. Seeds are obovate, flat, winged, and have a concave apex.

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Hu et Cheng) is called a “living fossil”. It is very significant in the studies of paleobotany, paleoclimate, paleogeography and paleogeology, and systematic development of gymnosperms. Furthermore, its graceful tree-form, tall straight trunk and fast growth, makes it a fine forestation species and a fast-growing timber species in the subtropics.